Table of Contents OdourAppearance/turbidityUrine dipstick analysisTest yourself! Learn how to perform it too…Performing urine tests is covered here! Odour Sweet: DKA/glycosuriaPungent: infectionAmmonia-type smell: alkaline urine Appearance/turbidity DiscolourationRed: haematuria/haemoglobinuria/myoglobinuria, porphyria, beetroot, drugs (rifampicin)Brown: bile pigments, myoglobin, methaemoglobin, drugs (levodopa, metronidazole, antimalarials, nitrofurantoin)Green/blue: Pseudomonas UTI, biliverdin, drugs (amitriptyline, methylene blue, propofol)Orange: bile pigments, drugs (phenothiazines)Cloudiness: pus, pyuria, alkaline urine phosphate crystalsSedimentation Urine dipstick analysis Test yourself! In which age groups are urine dipsticks not useful in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection? Oops! This section is restricted to members. A urine dipstick is undertaken in a patient with a severe acute kidney injury. 3+ protein is detected and nephrotic syndrome is suspected. Which further test can be used to quantify the proteinuria? What this the result threshold for nephrotic syndrome? Oops! This section is restricted to members. Which is the most common organism to cause a UTI? Oops! This section is restricted to members.