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Urinalysis

Odour

  • Sweet: DKA/glycosuria
  • Pungent: infection
  • Ammonia-type smell: alkaline urine

Appearance/turbidity

  • Discolouration
    • Red: haematuria/haemoglobinuria/myoglobinuria, porphyria, beetroot, drugs (rifampicin)
    • Brown: bile pigments, myoglobin, methaemoglobin, drugs (levodopa, metronidazole, antimalarials, nitrofurantoin)
    • Green/blue: Pseudomonas UTI, biliverdin, drugs (amitriptyline, methylene blue, propofol)
    • Orange: bile pigments, drugs (phenothiazines)
  • Cloudiness: pus, pyuria, alkaline urine phosphate crystals
  • Sedimentation

Urine dipstick analysis

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