Learn how to perform it too…

Performing urine tests is covered here!


  • Sweet: DKA/glycosuria
  • Pungent: infection
  • Ammonia-type smell: alkaline urine


  • Discolouration
    • Red: haematuria/haemoglobinuria/myoglobinuria, porphyria, beetroot, drugs (rifampicin)
    • Brown: bile pigments, myoglobin, methaemoglobin, drugs (levodopa, metronidazole, antimalarials, nitrofurantoin)
    • Green/blue: Pseudomonas UTI, biliverdin, drugs (amitriptyline, methylene blue, propofol)
    • Orange: bile pigments, drugs (phenothiazines)
  • Cloudiness: pus, pyuria, alkaline urine phosphate crystals
  • Sedimentation

Urine dipstick analysis

Test yourself!

In which age groups are urine dipsticks not useful in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection?

Oops! This section is restricted to members.

A urine dipstick is undertaken in a patient with a severe acute kidney injury. 3+ protein is detected and nephrotic syndrome is suspected. Which further test can be used to quantify the proteinuria? What this the result threshold for nephrotic syndrome?

Oops! This section is restricted to members.

Which is the most common organism to cause a UTI?

Oops! This section is restricted to members.

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Join our email list!
For free OSCE tips and updates