Urinalysis

Learn how to perform it too…

Performing urine tests is covered here!

Odour

  • Sweet: DKA/glycosuria
  • Pungent: infection
  • Ammonia-type smell: alkaline urine

Appearance/turbidity

  • Discolouration
    • Red: haematuria/haemoglobinuria/myoglobinuria, porphyria, beetroot, drugs (rifampicin)
    • Brown: bile pigments, myoglobin, methaemoglobin, drugs (levodopa, metronidazole, antimalarials, nitrofurantoin)
    • Green/blue: Pseudomonas UTI, biliverdin, drugs (amitriptyline, methylene blue, propofol)
    • Orange: bile pigments, drugs (phenothiazines)
  • Cloudiness: pus, pyuria, alkaline urine phosphate crystals
  • Sedimentation

Urine dipstick analysis

Test yourself!

In which age groups are urine dipsticks not useful in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection?

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A urine dipstick is undertaken in a patient with a severe acute kidney injury. 3+ protein is detected and nephrotic syndrome is suspected. Which further test can be used to quantify the proteinuria? What this the result threshold for nephrotic syndrome?

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Which is the most common organism to cause a UTI?

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