Share your insights

Help us by sharing what content you've recieved in your exams


Bladder cancer

Definition
  • Bladder cancer: A malignant tumour arising from the cells lining the urinary bladder.
Etiology & Risk Factors
  • Smoking: Significantly increases risk.
  • Exposure to industrial chemicals: Aromatic amines (benzidine and beta-naphthylamine).
  • Chronic bladder inflammation: Repeated urinary infections or long-term catheter use.
  • Radiation exposure.
  • Family history of bladder cancer.
  • Age: Most common in older adults.
Types
  • Transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma: Most common type.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma.
Clinical Presentation
  • Painless haematuria: Most common symptom.
  • Frequent urination or urgency to urinate.
  • Dysuria (painful urination).
  • Back or pelvic pain.
Investigations
  • Cystoscopy: Direct visualisation of the bladder lining.
  • Urine cytology: Microscopic examination of urine for cancer cells.
  • Imaging: CT urogram or MRI.
  • Biopsy during cystoscopy.
Staging
  • Staging is crucial for determining treatment approach and prognosis.
  • Based on TNM system: Tumour size, lymph Node involvement, and Metastasis.
Management
  • Transurethral resection: For early-stage tumours.
  • Chemotherapy: Intravesical (directly into the bladder) or systemic.
  • Radiotherapy: An option for some individuals.
  • Cystectomy: Removal of part (partial) or all (radical) of the bladder.
  • Immunotherapy: BCG vaccine directly into the bladder to stimulate an immune response.
Complications
  • Recurrence of the cancer.
  • Chronic urinary issues post-treatment.
  • Side effects of treatments, e.g., bladder irritation from intravesical chemotherapy.
Prognosis
  • Depends on stage, grade, and type of bladder cancer.
  • Regular follow-up with cystoscopies is required due to a high risk of recurrence.

No comments yet šŸ˜‰

Leave a Reply