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Urinary symptoms

Overview
  • Urinary symptoms: Refers to changes in urination habits or sensations experienced while urinating.
Common Symptoms
  • Dysuria: Painful or difficult urination.
  • Frequency: Need to urinate more often than usual.
  • Urgency: Sudden, strong need to urinate immediately.
  • Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.
  • Urinary retention: Inability to empty the bladder completely or at all.
  • Nocturia: Excessive urination at night.
  • Polyuria: Excessive urine production.
  • Oliguria: Reduced urine production.
  • Anuria: Absence of urine production.
  • Incontinence: Involuntary loss of urine.
  • Stranguria: Slow, painful urination caused by urine flow in drops.
Common Causes
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI): Often presents with dysuria, frequency, and urgency.
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Can cause urinary retention, frequency, nocturia in males.
  • Stones: Renal or bladder stones can cause hematuria, dysuria.
  • Bladder cancer: Hematuria without dysuria.
  • Diabetes mellitus: Polyuria due to glucose diuresis.
  • Neurological conditions: Multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injuries can alter bladder function.
Investigations
  • Urine dipstick: Check for nitrites, leucocytes, blood, and glucose.
  • Urine culture: For suspected UTIs.
  • Ultrasound: Assess post-void residual, detect stones, or tumours.
  • Cystoscopy: Visual inspection of the bladder interior.
  • Urodynamic studies: Evaluate bladder function and storage.

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