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Abnormal fundoscopic appearances

Learn how to undertake a visual examination and fundoscopy here.

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Image references

Diabetic retinopathy: “Moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy” by Community Eye Health is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

Retinoblastoma: Aerts, I, Lumbroso-Le Rouic, L, Marion Gauthier-Villars, M, Brisse, H, Doz, F, Desjardins, L. Retinoblastoma. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 1, 31. 2006. PMID 16934146. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-1-31 (http://www.ojrd.com/content/1/1/31). Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

Retinal detachment: “Recent subtotal rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.” by Community Eye Health is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

Laser pan-retinal photocoagulation: “Laser pan-retinal photocoagulation.” by Community Eye Health is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

Hypertensive retinopathy: Frank Wood 2009. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.

Retinal artery occlusion: “Hemi-retinal artery occlusion” by IAPB/VISION 2020 is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

Branch retinal vein occlusion: Ku C Yong, Tan A Kah, Yeap T Ghee, Lim C Siang and Mae-Lynn C Bastion, Department of Ophthalmology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) and Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license

Retinitis pigmentosa: Retinitis pigmentosa by Christian Hamel 2006. © 2006 Hamel; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license.

Dry macular degeneration: “Age-related macular degeneration.” by Community Eye Health is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

Wet macular degeneration: “Exudative age-related macular degenerative” by Community Eye Health is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

Optic atrophy: “Optic atrophy” by Community Eye Health is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

Papilloedema: “Papilloedema, haemorrhages.” by Community Eye Health is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

Severe papilloedema: “File:Fundal photograph showing severe papilloedema in the right eye.jpg” by Shveta Bansal , Timothy Dabbs and Vernon Long is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

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