Definition Varicose veins: Dilated, tortuous, and elongated superficial veins, typically seen in the legs. Etiology & Pathophysiology Valvular incompetence in superficial veins. Increased venous pressure leading to vein dilation and valve failure. Primary varicose veins: Due to congenital weakness of vein wall. Secondary varicose veins: Due to a known cause like deep vein thrombosis. Risk Factors Family history. Ageing. Female gender (hormonal influences). Pregnancy. Obesity. Prolonged standing. Deep vein thrombosis history. Clinical Presentation Visible dilated veins on legs. Leg heaviness or ache. Nocturnal cramps. Itching over veins. Swelling in legs and ankles. Skin discolouration, especially near the ankles (haemosiderin staining). Complications: eczema, ulcers, bleeding, thrombophlebitis. Investigations Doppler ultrasound: To evaluate venous reflux and patency. Venography (less commonly used). Management Conservative: Compression stockings, elevation of legs, lifestyle modifications (e.g., weight loss, avoid prolonged standing). Interventional: Sclerotherapy, endovenous laser therapy, radiofrequency ablation. Surgical: Ligation and stripping, phlebectomy. Prevention Regular exercise. Maintaining a healthy weight. Avoiding prolonged standing or sitting. Use of compression stockings if at risk.