Definition Pancreatic cancer refers to malignant tumours originating from the pancreas. Etiology Main types: Adenocarcinoma (arising from exocrine cells, most common) and neuroendocrine tumours (less common). Risk factors: Chronic pancreatitis. Smoking. Obesity. Family history of pancreatic cancer or certain genetic mutations (e.g., BRCA2, PALB2). Diabetes. Age > 60. Clinical Presentation Often asymptomatic until advanced stages. Jaundice (particularly with tumours in the head of the pancreas). Unexplained weight loss. Abdominal pain radiating to the back. Nausea and vomiting. Pale stools and dark urine (due to obstructive jaundice). Recent onset diabetes. Investigations Abdominal CT scan: mainstay for diagnosis and staging. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration: for tissue diagnosis. MRCP: to evaluate bile and pancreatic ducts. CA19-9: tumour marker, though non-specific, can be elevated in pancreatic cancer. Management Surgical resection (Whipple procedure or distal pancreatectomy): the only curative option but applicable to a minority of cases. Chemotherapy (e.g., gemcitabine, FOLFIRINOX). Radiation therapy: in certain situations, often combined with chemotherapy. Palliative care: for symptom management in advanced disease. Stenting for bile duct obstruction. Pain management. Prognosis Generally poor with a low 5-year survival rate due to late diagnosis in most cases. Early detection and resection offer the best chance of long-term survival. Complications Metastasis, commonly to the liver. Biliary obstruction leading to jaundice. Thromboembolic events (e.g., deep vein thrombosis). Ascites. Prompt diagnosis and management are critical for patients with pancreatic cancer, as the prognosis is generally poor. A multi-disciplinary approach involving gastroenterologists, oncologists, and surgeons is essential for optimal care.