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  • A hernia is the protrusion of an organ or its fascia through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it.
Types of Hernias
  • Inguinal hernia: Most common type, can be direct (medial to inferior epigastric vessels) or indirect (lateral to inferior epigastric vessels).
  • Femoral hernia: Below the inguinal ligament, more common in females.
  • Umbilical hernia: Protrusion at the umbilicus.
  • Incisional hernia: Through a surgical scar.
  • Hiatal hernia: Stomach protrudes into the thorax through the diaphragm.
Clinical Presentation
  • Lump: Often first noticed by the patient.
  • Pain or discomfort, especially when lifting, coughing, or straining.
  • Signs of bowel obstruction in strangulated hernias: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain.
  • Strangulation: Compromised blood supply leading to tissue necrosis.
  • Obstruction: Bowel gets trapped in the hernial sac.
  • Incisional hernias can result in wound dehiscence (wound splitting open).
  • Clinical examination: Palpation and observation while patient coughs or strains.
  • Ultrasound: To confirm diagnosis and differentiate from other lumps.
  • CT/MRI: Useful in complex or recurrent cases.
  • Elective surgical repair for symptomatic hernias or those at risk of complications.
  • Watchful waiting for asymptomatic inguinal hernias in older patients.
  • Laparoscopic or open hernia repair.
  • Emergency surgery for strangulated hernias.
Differential Diagnoses
  • Lipoma, lymphadenopathy, abscess, hydrocele, and more.

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