Febrile convulsions, also known as febrile seizures, are convulsions associated with a high body temperature (fever), but without an underlying central nervous system infection. They are the most common type of seizures in children.
Typically occur in children between the ages of 6 months and 5 years.
There is a slight male predominance.
The exact cause is unknown, but they are thought to be related to the rapid increase in body temperature rather than the absolute value of the fever.
Often occur with common childhood illnesses like ear infections, colds, and viral infections.
Simple Febrile Convulsions:
Generalized seizure lasting less than 15 minutes.
Does not recur within 24 hours or a febrile illness.
Complex Febrile Convulsions:
Last longer than 15 minutes, occur more than once during a febrile illness, or are focal in nature.
Seizure occurring in the context of a febrile illness.
Loss of consciousness and convulsions (jerking movements).
Postictal drowsiness or confusion may follow.
Clinical diagnosis based on history and presentation.
Exclusion of central nervous system infection (e.g., meningitis) is crucial, especially in complex cases or if there are any atypical features.
Lumbar puncture may be required in certain cases to rule out meningitis, especially in infants.
Treatment is directed at the febrile illness and maintaining safety during seizures.
Antipyretics can be used to control fever.
Antiepileptic drugs are generally not recommended for simple febrile convulsions.
Parental education about managing future seizures and when to seek medical attention.
Generally good, with most children outgrowing the tendency to have febrile convulsions by the age of 5.
Simple febrile convulsions do not cause brain damage and have a low risk of developing into epilepsy.