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  • Endometriosis is a chronic condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) starts to grow in other places, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and along the pelvis.


  • Commonly affects women of reproductive age.


  • The exact cause is unknown.
  • Theories include retrograde menstruation, metaplastic transformation, and genetic factors.
  • Risk factors: Family history, menstrual factors (such as early menarche, short cycles), and never having been pregnant.


  • Endometrial-like tissue outside the uterus behaves like it would inside the uterus: thickening, breaking down, and bleeding with each menstrual cycle.
  • Unlike the endometrial lining, this tissue has no way to exit the body, leading to inflammation, pain, and the formation of scar tissue (adhesions).

Clinical Features:

  • Dysmenorrhea (painful periods).
  • Chronic pelvic pain.
  • Pain during or after sexual intercourse.
  • Infertility.
  • Other symptoms may include painful bowel movements or urination, fatigue, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, and nausea, especially during menstrual periods.


  • Based on symptoms, clinical examination, and history.
  • Ultrasound can be used as an initial imaging modality.
  • Definitive diagnosis often requires laparoscopy with biopsy of lesions.


  • No cure, but treatments focus on symptom relief and management of infertility.
  • Pain management: NSAIDs, hormonal contraceptives.
  • Hormone therapy: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists, progestin therapy.
  • Surgical options: Laparoscopic removal of endometriosis implants, adhesiolysis, hysterectomy with or without removal of ovaries.


  • Chronic condition with symptoms typically improving after menopause.
  • Fertility issues can be a significant concern for some women.

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