Axilla: obvious lymphadenopathy, large joint effusions, bruising
Ask about any pain and then start by examining the normal side.
Skin: palpate general area for temperature and soft tissue swelling/tenderness
Bony landmarks: run hand from sternoclavicular joint along clavicle to acromioclavicular joint; then over the greater and lesser tuberosities and around the glenohumeral joint. Next feel the spine of the scapula, then around its inferior part back to the acromioclavicular joint. Watch the patient’s face for tenderness.
Tendons: look for biceps ‘Popeye’ sign/lump (biceps tendon rupture); flex elbow and feel long head of biceps tendon in bicipital groove while internally and externally rotating shoulder (painful = tendinopathy; check tendon is in groove and there is no subluxation); push arm posteriorly and feel the supraspinatus attachment at the greater tubercle just laterally
Test active movements first, demonstrating them yourself beforehand:
Forward flexion (180˚): raise arms forward
Extension (65˚): swing arms backward
Abduction (180˚): raise each arm up sideways separately
If there’s pain on abduction
Note at what angle it occurs:
High arc pain = acromioclavicular joint pathology, e.g. arthritis Middle arc pain = rotator cuff pathology, e.g. supraspinatus tendonitis or partial rotator cuff tear)
Passive movements will also help determine cause:
No pain on passive movement = muscular Still painful on passive movement = mechanical/joint
Adduction (50˚): move arms to midline and across body
External rotation (80˚): flex patient’s elbows to 90˚ anteriorly, with their elbows fixed against their sides. Then ask them to turn their arms laterally (external rotation lost early to <30˚ in adhesive capsulitis).
Internal rotation: ask patient to try to touch their scapula with their fingers behind their lower back (normal = can touch base of scapula, i.e. T6/7)
PASSIVE MOVEMENTS: from behind, hold the patient’s shoulder with one hand and their wrist with the other, then move their arm in all directions passively (feel for crepitus at acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints)
Patient should press hands on wall and lean forwards – look for scapula winging
Deltoid (C5/6, axillary nerve)
Abduct shoulder against resistance at 90˚
Resisted ‘empty can’ test: patient should slightly forward flex their shoulder with their elbow extended, and pronate wrist (‘empty a can of coke’); then ask them to push their wrist upwards against resistance
Infraspinatus / teres minor
Resisted external rotation: arm in neutral position for infraspinatus; arm in 90˚ abduction for teres minor
Patient should place the dorsum of their hand over their lumbar spine; then move hand away posteriorly
Neer’s impingement test
From behind, stabilise the scapula with one hand, and use the other hand tointernally rotate the patient’s straight arm and passively forward flex it as high as possible. Pain is a positive test (impingement syndrome).
Patient should forward flex their shoulder to 90˚, pronate hand (‘empty a can of coke’) and flex elbow medially to 90˚. Now passively internally rotate shoulder (push their wrist downward while holding patient’s elbow steady). Pain is a positive test (impingement syndrome).
Ask patient to hold hand out like a ‘high five’, then pull back elbow and push proximal humerus forward. Positive if patient shows fear of instability(shoulder stabilisation problems, i.e. dislocation or subluxation).
Scarf acromioclavicular joint test
Position patient’s hand over their opposite shoulder and push their elbow posteriorly (pain = acromioclavicular joint pathology)
SCREENING:testgetting hands behind head and behind back
Thank patient and restore clothing
‘To complete my examination, I would examine the cervical spine and elbows, and perform a distal neurovascular examination.’
Summarise and suggest further investigations you would consider after a full history