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Osteoarthritis

Introduction
  • Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease
  • Most common form of arthritis
  • Major cause of disability and reduced quality of life
Epidemiology
  • Prevalent in older adults
  • Women more affected than men
  • Risk increases with age, obesity, and joint injury
Aetiology
  • Ageing
  • Genetic factors
  • Mechanical stress
  • Obesity
  • Prior joint injuries
Pathophysiology
  • Loss of articular cartilage
  • Subchondral bone changes
  • Osteophyte formation
  • Synovial inflammation
Clinical Presentation
  • Joint pain
  • Stiffness
  • Reduced range of motion
  • Crepitus
Diagnosis
  • Clinical history
  • Physical examination
  • X-rays (not always necessary)
  • No definitive blood tests
Treatment
  • Conservative management
    • Weight loss
    • Exercise
  • Pharmacologic
    • Paracetamol
    • NSAIDs (Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
  • Surgical
    • Joint replacement
    • Arthroscopy (controversial)

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